Intermittent Exotropia: A Review of the Natural History and Non-surgical Treatment Outcomes
Kailin Karen Zhang 1
Konstandina Koklanis, BOrth(Hons) PhD 1,2
Zoran Georgievski, BAppSc(Orth)Hons 1,3
1 Department of Clinical Vision Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Childrens Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
3 Orthoptics, Northern Health, Melbourne, Australia
Intermittent exotropia of the divergence excess type is the most common form of exotropia. Given the intermittent nature of this deviation, and that it can be controlled by fusional vergence but has the potential to develop sensory anomalies such as suppression, management options include non-surgical as well as surgical means. The aims of non-surgical or orthoptic treatment are to improve fusion, eradicate suppression and or teach control of the deviation, in order to decrease the frequency of the manifest phase and improve motor alignment for near and distance. This review focuses on the outcomes of various non-surgical treatments, including orthoptics, and discusses the natural history of intermittent exotropia which invariably has implications for management.